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Animal Cruelty Investigations: A Collaborative Approach from Victim to Verdict

Autor: Kris K. Otteman Brant, Linda Fielder, Emily Lewis

Cena s DPH:  2016 Kč
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Animal Cruelty Investigations: A Collaborative Approach from Victim to Verdict provides a framework for the experts who respond to animal cruelty cases: veterinarians, law enforcement agencies, animal care and control organizations, and prosecutors. This book is a practical guide which provides insight and direction for every phase of an animal cruelty investigation. The step-by-step guidance on responding to particular issues and challenges related to animal cruelty cases is bolstered by the extensive library of checklists, form templates, specific case protocols, and lists of available resources. This book is designed to empower readers to respond to animal cruelty cases confidently and effectively by: Introducing veterinarians to their critical role in animal cruelty investigations including forensic examination and necropsy, crime scene response, report writing, and testimony. Included are detailed Specific Case Protocols for common animal cruelty scenarios.

Helping animal shelters navigate the challenges of holding animals in protective custody, housing unusual species, and placing evidence animals in foster care. Offering law enforcement agencies useful methods for investigating animal cruelty such as search and seizure protocols, witness interview techniques, and valuable forms and templates necessary to strengthen and ensure proper search warrant execution, evidence collection and handling, and chain of custody; all with a focus on animals as both victims and evidence. Guiding prosecutors through the steps necessary to utilize the veterinarian's findings during the trial and providing insight into issues to be considered when reviewing search warrants, filing charges, proposing plea agreements, or filing pre-conviction forfeiture motions. This book is a must-have reference and guide for veterinarians, technicians, law enforcement officers, prosecutors, and all those involved in the protection of animals' health and wellbeing. The successful investigation of animal crimes relies on each of these disciplines, not only carrying out their professional duties, but having a collective understanding of what each other needs in order to meet that expectation..

List of ContributorsXI
About the Companion WebsiteXV
1 Introduction1
1.1 Making the Most of This Resource1
1.2 Why Definitions Are Important2
1.3 Terms and Phrases: Animal Cruelty Cases2
1.4 Terms and Phrases: Veterinary Medicine3
1.5 Terms and Phrases: Law Enforcement and Field Services5
1.6 Terms and Phrases: Criminal Law7
1.7 Looking Ahead12
2 Animal Basic14
2.1 The History of the Five Freedoms and Their Impact on Animal Welfare Laws15
2.2 Veterinarians as Experts in the Field15
2.3 With So Many Species, Where to Begin?16
2.4 Defining Animals by Category16
2.5 Animal Basics by Species16
2.6 Basics That Apply to All Animals23
2.7 Putting Your Basic Knowledge to Work24
3 Fundamentals of All Cases25
3.1 Interdisciplinary Roles25
3.2 Environment26
3.3 Sanitation27
3.4 Food and Water28
3.5 Nutrition30
3.6 Documentation31
3.7 Body Condition32
3.8 Documenting Body Condition33
3.9 Dental, Foot and Hoof Care33
3.10 Veterinary Care, Medications and Treatment35
3.11 Nonaccidental Injury and Trauma36
3.12 The Link Between Animal Cruelty and Crimes Against Humans37
3.13 Emergency Issues37
4 Initial Investigation and Assessment38
4.1 Types of Reports38
4.2 Anonymous Reports39
4.3 Required Information39
4.4 Response Triage40
4.5 Legitimate or Not? How to Decide40
4.6 Responding to Calls: Initial Site Visit40
5 Witness and Subject Interviewing45
5.1 Preparation for the Interview45
5.2 Interview Location and Setting46
5.3 Miranda and Consent46
5.4 Building Rapport47
5.5 Ask Clear and Direct Open-Ended Questions48
5.6 Suspect Interviews49
5.7 Reading Body Language and Detecting Deception50
5.8 Confessions50
5.9 Ending the Interview51
5.10 Documenting the Interview51
5.11 Additional Resources and Training51
6 The Veterinarian's Role in Animal Cruelty Investigations53
6.1. The Veterinarian is an Important Partner in Animal Cruelty Investigations53
6.2 The Veterinarian's Oath55
6.3 How Veterinary Forensic Differs from Traditional Veterinary Medicine55
6.4 Veterinary Confidentiality and Medical Records Requests56
6.5 Public Informations Considerations57
6.6 Conflicts of Interests58
6.7 Be Familiar with the Laws59
6.8 How to Find and Build Knowledge in the Area of Animal Law59
6.9 Understand What the Prosecutor and Law Enforcement Need to Know60
6.10 How Animal Cruelty Investigations Surface and Become Active Cases61
7 The Veterinary Exam and Treatment Plan63
7.1 Request and Review Evidentiary Material64
7.2 Initial Steps65
7.3 Examination Key Elements71
7.4 Ongoing Responsibilities of the Veterinarian83
8 Setting Expectations and Monitoring Compliance87
8.1 Education and Guidance vs. Citation87
8.2 Passive Neglect and Lack of Resources88
8.3 Education89
8.4 Setting Expextations90
8.5 What You Can and Cannot Require91
8.6 Conducting Rechecks92
8.7 What If Nothing Improves or Conditions Worsen?92
8.8 What About Animal Hoarders?93
9 Search Warrants and Seizures95
9.1 Exceptions to the Warrant Requirement in Animal Cruelty Cases95
9.2 Prewarrant Considerations98
9.3 Drafting of the Affidavit and Search Warrant103
9.4 Before You Serve the Warrant110
9.5 Preservice Briefing114
9.6 Serving the Warrant115
9.7 Start Documenting the Scene117
9.8 System for Evidence Documentation and Processing118
9.9 Processing the Animals121
9.10 Forms123
9.11 Discovering Evidence of Other Crimes127
9.12 The First 24 Hours After the Search Warrant Execution127
10 Evidence Collection130
10.1 What is Evidence130
10.2 How Evidence Animal Cruelty Cases Differs from Traditional Property Crimes130
10.3 How to Package the Evidence136
10.4 What to Do with Evidence Until Trial152
10.5 Evidence at Trial154
10.6 Evidence After Trial155
11 Veterinary Forensic Necropsy158
11.1 How a Forensic Necropsy is Different158
11.2 The Importance of the Forensic Necropsy158
11.3 Necropsy at the Owner's Request159
11.4 Packing and Storing Remains Prior to Necropsy159
11.5 Forensic Necropsy Equipment and Protocols160
11.6 Case History160
11.7 Preparing to Perform the Necropsy160
11.8 The Necropsy Report175
11.9 Next Steps179
11.10 An Important Reminder179
12 Report Writing180
12.1 Introduction180
12.2 General Principles180
12.3 Crime Report183
12.4 Veterinarian Reports184
12.5 Witness Statements189
12.6 The Case Packet192
12.7 Conclusion195
13 Protective Custody (Live Animals)196
13.1 The Challenge of LIve Animal Evidence196
13.2 The First 24 Hours197
13.3 Know Your Agency's Capacity198
13.4 Facility Set-Up and Security199
13.5 Training Staff and Confidentiality200
13.6 Paperwork and Record Keeping201
13.7 Providing Security Without Isolation202
13.8 Foster Care and Offsite Boarding203
13.9 Routine and Emergency Veterinary Care204
13.10 Death in Care and Euthanasia Considerations204
13.11 Offspring Born in Care205
13.12 Concusion206
14 Media and Fundraising207
14.1 Media Coverage207
14.2 Handling Negative Press214
14.3 Internal Communications Policy215
14.4 Fundraising215
15 Forfeiture, Surrender, and Related Legal Remedies221
15.1 Seized Animals and Reasonable Minimum Care222
15.2 The Impact of Seizure Expenses - and Responsive Solutions223
15.3 Voluntary Reliquishment223
15.4 The Sized Animal as Contaband224
15.5 Preconviction Forfeiture226
15.6 Preconviction Forfeiture: Bond-or-Forfeit Statutes227
15.7 Bond-or-Forfeit Statute Examples228
15.8 Bond-or-Forfeit Statutes Are Constitutionally Complint229
15.9 Restitution230
15.10 Forfeiture via Sentencing231
15.11 Cost-of-Care Liens231
15.12 Conclusion231
16 Trial233
16.1 Trials: An Overview233
16.2 The Players234
16.3 How a Typical Criminal Case Gets to Trial238
16.4 Pretrial Matters241
16.5 The Trial242
16.6 Topics for Prosecutors246
16.7 Conclusion249
Introduction to the Appendix250
Appendix A: Specific Case Protocols251
Appendix B: Forms and Checklists329
Appendix C: Templates and Agreements391
Appendix D: Resources425