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Handbook of Small Animal Imaging: Preclinical Imaging, Therapy, and Applications

Stručný popis

Použití zvířecích modelů v současné výzkumné praxi je naprosto nepostradatelná záležitost a tvoří nedílnou součást testování nových farmaceutických přípravků a preparátů před jejich použití v klinické praxi. O jejich výsledky se opírají výzkumy přípravků, které jsou poté použity v humánní medicíně. Jsou také zdrojem informací v dalších biomedicínských oborech. Kolektiv autorů v této publikaci pokrývají všechny aspekty preklinického zobrazování malých zvířat od zahájení výzkumného programu až po analýzu zobrazovacích dat a metod. Používané metody zahrnují nejen poznatky o ionizujícím záření, hybridní zobrazování a zobrazovacích činidlech. Uvedeny jsou metody o kterých jsem pouze slýchával a považoval jsem je za metodiky z učebnic sci-fi, o kterých jsem diskutovali pouze v kavárencko-anarchistických kroužcích. Publikace poskytuje praktické informace o současném etickém pohledu na manipulaci se zvířaty v průběhu výzkumných programů a projektů. Tyto informace jsou důležité při projektování výzkumu zobrazovacích metod u malých zvířat. V publikaci jsou osvětleny známé metody kvantifikace zobrazovacích metod. V publikaci je řešeno široké spektrum onemocnění a jejich lokalizace, při kterých se uplatňují zobrazovací metody a terapie. Především v kardiologii byl zaznamenán ohromný vývoj při diagnostice a terapii srdečních onemocnění.

Autor: George C. Kagadis, Nancy L. Ford, Dimitrios N. Karnabatidis, George K. Loudos

Cena s DPH:  6038 Kč
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Základní informace
NakladatelCRC Press
ISBN9781466555686
Vydání2016
Vazbapevná
Počet stran601
Popis

The use of small animal models in basic and preclinical sciences constitutes an integral part of testing new pharmaceutical agents prior to their application in clinical practice. New imaging and therapeutic approaches need to be tested and validated first in animals before application to humans.
Handbook of Small Animal Imaging: Preclinical Imaging, Therapy, and Applications collects the latest information about various imaging and therapeutic technologies used in preclinical research into a single source. Useful to established researchers as well as newcomers to the field, this handbook shows readers how to exploit and integrate these imaging and treatment modalities and techniques into their own research.
The book first presents introductory material on small animal imaging, therapy, and research ethics. It next covers ionizing radiation and nonionizing radiation methods in small animal imaging, hybrid imaging, and imaging agents. The book then addresses therapeutic research platforms and image quantification, explaining how to ensure accurate measurements of high-quality data. It concludes with an overview of many small animal imaging and therapy applications that demonstrate the strength of the techniques in biomedical fields.
· Covers all aspects of preclinical imaging, from initiating a research program using animals to analyzing imaging data and methods
· Provides practical information on animal ethics, models, and handling to assist researchers in planning and executing their small animal imaging studies
· Explains how to measure and quantify images
· Explores a broad spectrum of disease types and disease sites where small animal imaging and therapy are currently applied, including cardiovascular disease and intracellular targets

Autors: George C. Kagadis, PhD, FAAPM, is an associate professor of medical physics and medical informatics at the University of Patras. He also holds an adjunct assistant professor appointment at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. He is a Greek State Scholarship Foundation grantee, a Fulbright research scholar, and a fellow of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). He has authored about 80 journal papers and presented at more than 20 conferences. He received his PhD in medical physics from the University of Patras. His current research interests focus on medical image processing and analysis, studies in molecular imaging, IHE, and CAD applications.
Nancy L. Ford, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Oral, Biological and Medical Sciences and the director of the Centre for High-Throughput Phenogenomics at the University of British Columbia. She is a full member of the AAPM and an associate editor of Medical Physics. She publishes in journals on medical physics, radiology, and dental science. She received her PhD in medical biophysics from the University of Western Ontario. Her research focuses on preclinical micro-computed tomography imaging and image-based analysis, primarily studying models of respiratory diseases, along with CBCT and MSCT for medical and dental applications.
Dimitrios N. Karnabatidis, PhD, EBIR, is an associate professor of interventional radiology at the University of Patras. He is a fellow of the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe and a member of the Hellenic Radiology Society, the Hellenic Society of Interventional Radiology, and the Western Greece Radiology Society. He has been involved as a participant/principal investigator in several national/international research projects and has published 122 articles in peer-reviewed journals. He received his PhD from the School of Medicine, University of Patras. His research interests include angiogenesis in malignant and benign diseases, the augmentation of arteriogenesis in critical limb ischemia, endothelial hyperplasia inhibition after endovascular procedures, and ureteral obstructive diseases.
George K. Loudos, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at the Technological Educational Institute of Athens. He has published 89 articles in international journals and more than 200 papers in conference proceedings. He received his PhD in biomedical engineering from the National Technical University of Athens. His research interests focus on molecular imaging using nuclear medicine techniques and medical instrumentation. He strongly supports interdisciplinary cooperation and education in the field of nanomedicine and molecular imaging

Obsah
INTRODUCTION TO SMALL ANIMAL IMAGING, THERAPY, AND APPLICATIONS3
Defining Small Animal Imaging, Therapy, and Applications Nancy L. Ford, George K. Loudos, Dimitrios N. Karnabatidis, and George C. Kagadis3
Definitions3
Book Content4
Future Directions of Small Animal Imaging and Therapy in Translational Medicine5
Ethics and Regulations for Research with Animals William R. Hendee7
Animal Care: Introduction18
Housing19
Handling20
Administration of Substances20
Transportation21
Diseases Transmission Concerns21
Animal Preparation and Supportive Care of Anesthesia22
Fasting22
Injections of Anesthetics and Contrast Agents22
Supportive Care24
Heat24
Fluids25
Oxygen25
Eye Lubrication25
Analgesia26
Anesthesia26
Animal Welfare Concerns31
Future of Small Animal Imaging32
Preclinical Models Irene Cuadrado, Jesús Egido, Jose Luis Zamorano, and Carlos Zaragoza35
Preclinical Models in Biomedical Research36
Animal Models of Atherosclerosis36
Animal Models of Atherothrombotic Aneurysms38
Animal Models of Heart Failure40
Animal Models in Cancer Research41
Animal Models of Neurodegenarative Diseasse42
Conclusions43
SMALL ANIMAL IMAGING: IONIZING RADIATION51
Microcomputed Tomography Nancy L. Ford51
Basic Principles of Microcomputed Tomography52
Image Formation53
Image Reconstruction54
Image-Based Analysis56
Optimalization of Image Acqusistion56
Specimen Imaging57
In Vivo Imaging59
Aplications64
Digital Subtracted Angiography of Small Animals Stavros Spiliopoulos, George C. Kagadis, Dimitrios N. Karnabatidis, G. Allan Johnson, and Cristian Badea67
Introduction67
Animal Preparation adn Anesthesia68
Imaging Instrumentation and Vascular Access69
Image Acquisition Techniques and Applications71
Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography Matthew A. Lewis77
Introduction77
Physics78
Image Formation84
Systems85
Example Applications89
Future Perspectives91
Positron Emission Tomography Vesna Sossi and Matthew Walker99
Introduction to Positron Emissind Tomography100
Physic Principles of PET100
PET Detectors and Camera Design107
Impact of Software Development on Image Quality and Quantification Accuracy109
SMALL ANIMAL IMAGING: NONIONIZING RADIATION121
MR Imaging Dmitri Artemov121
Physical Principles of Magentic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy122
Contrast Mechanisms in MR Imaging126
Technical Aspects and Instrumentation for MR Imaging in Small Animals130
Examples of MRI/MRSI Applications in Small Animals133
Discussion and Conclusions136
Acknowldgments137
References137
Optical Imaging Matthew A. Lewis141
Introduction142
Classifications142
Data Acquisition142
Mathematical Models144
Commercial Preclinical Opitacal Imaging Systems155
Hybrid Modalities156
Futher information157
References157
HYBRID IMAGING167
Optical-CT Imaging Xueli Chen, Dongmei Chen, FengLin Liu, Wenxiang Cong, Ge Wang, and Jimin Liang167
Introduction168
Hybrid Imaging Systém Design170
BLT Image Reconstruction171
POT Image Reconstriction176
Other Optical Tomography Modalites179
Acknowledgments181
References181
PET/CT Mohammad Reza Ay and Nafiseh Ghazanfari187
Introduction to Combining MRI with PET Volkmar Schulz, Jakob Wehner, and Yannick Berker205
Chalanges and Benefits of MRI-PET207
First Challenge: Electromagnetic Interference209
Second Challenge: MRI-PET Systém Integration218
Third Challenge: PET Attenuation Correction in MRI-PET225
A Potential Benefit: Positron Range Effects in MRI-PET228
References231
Exotic Imaging Approaches Maria Koutsoupidou and Irene S. Karanasiou233
Imaging Principles234
Methods and Technology235
Current Applications238
Conclusions and Future Prospects242
References243
IMAGING AGENTS249
X-Ray, MRI, and Ultrasound Agents: Basic Principles Michael F. Tweedle, Krishan Kumar, and Michael V. Knopp249
X-Ray Contrast Agents250
MRI Contrast Agents257
Ultrasound Contrast Agents268
References273
Radiochemistry for Preclinical Imaging Studies Sven Macholl and Matthias Glaser277
Radiotracer Design278
SPECT Radiotraces for Preclinical Imaging279
PET Radiotracers for Preclinical Imaging296
Quality Control of Radiotracers308
New Radiochemistry Approaches and Techniques308
Acknowledgment309
Disclosure Statesment309
References309
Molecular Targets and Optical Probes Eleni K. Efthimiadou and George Kordas315
Nanoparticles as Imaging Agents315
Inorganic Nanopaticles317
Bio-Functionalization of NPs321
Toxicity of NPs323
References324
THERAPEUTIC RESEARCH PLATFORMS329
Developing Technologies for Small Animal Radiotherapy Frank Verhaegen, James Stewart, and David Jaffray329
Need for Small Animal Precision Radiotherapy330
Experimental Animal Radiation Wok before the Advent of Precision332
Requrments for Precision Image-Guided Small Animal Radiation Reserch Platforms334
Recent Developments in Precision Small Animal Radiotherapy337
Commissioning Small Animal Radiation Platforms344
Nex Developments and Research with Small Animal Platforms346
References348
Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiation in Small Animal Imaging Michael G. Stabin353
Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry353
Biological Effects from Radiation Exposures: Type of Effects, Relation to Dose Levels, Experience355
Radiation Dosimetry for Nuclear Medicine Imaging (SPECT, PET)356
Radiation Dosimetry for CT Imaging359
Combined Dosimetry for PET/CT and SPECT/CT Imaging360
CT and Pharmaceutical Dosimetry for Small Animals361
References363
Treatment Planning for Small Animals Frank Verhaegen365
Introduction366
Specific Issues for Small Animal Radiation Dose Calculation366
Imaging Information Needed for Treatment Planning368
Dose Calculation Models for Small Animals371
Issues Related to Treatment Planning for Small Animals376
Dose Verification379
Future Developments381
References382
Radiolabeled Agents for Molecular Imaging and/or Therapy Dimitrios Psimadas and Eirini A. Fragogeorgi385
Radilabeling387
Monoclonal Antibodies388
Small Regulatory Pepides394
References403
IMAGE QUANTIFICATION409
Quantification in Nuclear Preclinical Imaging409
Performance Assessment of Small Animal Imaging Systems and Common Standards423
Monte Carlo Simulations in Imaging and Therapy435
Quantification in Nuclear Preclinical Imaging Istvan Szanda409
Introduction410
Biological Aspects of Quantification411
Technological Aspects of Quantification413
Image Analysis Aspects of Quantification418
Conclusion and Final Remarks421
Acknowledgments421
References421
Performance Assessment of Small Animal Imaging Systems and Common Standards Nancy L. Ford426
Monte Carlo Simulations in Imaging and Therapy Panagiotis Papadimitroulas, George C. Kagadis, and George K. Loudos435
Monte Carlo Simulations436
Computational Small Animal Models438
Preclinical Systems441
Monte Carlo Applications443
Discussion446
References447
APPLICATIONS453
Small Animal Imaging and Therapy: How They Affect Patient Care Lawrence W. Dobrucki453
Small Animal Imaging in the Development of a New Generation of Therapeutics454
Development of Molecular Imaging Probes Used in the Clinc459
Future Directions461
References461
Applications for Drug Development Jeßica Kalra, Donald T. Yapp, Murray Webb, and Marcel B. Bally463
A History of Animal Models Used in Drug Development464
The Drug Discovery Process and Small Animal Imaging465
Conclusiont and Future Perspectives481
Conclusions482
References483
Imaging of Intracellular Targets Veerle Kersemans487
Introduction to Intracelular Target for Molecular Imaging488
Mechanisms to Target Intracellular Moieties and Their Applications492
Call Labeling and Tracking499
Reporter Genes in Preclinical Imaging500
Theranostics503
Summary504
References504
Imaging of Cell Trafficking and Cell Tissue Homing Veerle Kersemans509
Introduction to Imaging of Cell Trafficking and Cell Tissue Homing510
Methods of Cell Labeling514
Difficulties518
Summary520
References520
Introduction528
Causes of Cardiovascular Diseaseas528
Imaging of Inflammation530
Imaging of Stenosis534
Imaging of Left Ventricular Remodeling535
Imaging of Cell Death541
Imaging fo Thrombosis543
Conclusions545
References546
Imaging Angiogenesis Lawrence W. Dobrucki549
Introduction550
Utilizaiton of Imaging Modalities555
Future Directions564
References564
Imaging of Hypoxia, Apoptosis, and Inflammation Stavros Spiliopoulos and Athanasios Diamantopoulos569
Introduction569
Imaging of Appotosis570
Imaging of Hypoxia573
Imaging of Inflammation574
References575
Vessel Wall Imaging Stavros Spiliopoulos579
Introduction579
Small Animal Vessel Wal Anatomy580
Conventional and Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)580
Moleculat Imaging582
Microcomputed Tomography (CT) and High-Frequency Ultrasound584
Plain X-Ray and Digital Subtraction Angiography585
References585
Index589