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Parasitology An Integrated Approach

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Extremely detailed textbook on parasites and parasite relationships

The fully revised edition of »Parasitology: An Integrated Approach« holds true to its engaging and easy-to-read approach. It comprehensively covers the complex and dynamic interaction between the parasite and its host ranging from invertebrates to vertebrates.

Following an integrated approach, the authors explain how the study of parasites requires an understanding of biological concepts such as growth and reproduction, molecular biology, biochemistry, immunology, and pathology. In this second edition, they further address parasites and parasite relationships in the grand scheme of global changes and their impact.

Often neglected, this textbook also reviews the positive aspects of parasite infections and how humans have used parasites for their own advantage.

»Parasitology: An Integrated Approach«, 2nd edition includes supplementary learning resources such as self-assessment quizzes, practical exercises, and an extensive collection of photographs.

Now includes parasite life cycles in colour
Strong focus on parasite interactions with other pathogens such as bacteria and viruses
Discusses major advancements in the field of parasite diagnostics
Additional image material and learning resources (quizzes, practical exercises) provided online
A valuable and comprehensive learning resource for undergraduate students in biological, biomedical and veterinary sciences, and medicine. It is also of interest to postgraduates and professionals with an interest including but not limited to parasitology, animal welfare, ecology, and medical microbiology.

Autor: Alan Gunn, Sarah J. Pitt (Autoren)

Cena s DPH:  asi 1788 Kč
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VydáníII. vydání 2022
Počet stran

1 Animal Associations and the Importance of Parasites
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Animal associations: commensalism, mutualism, symbiosis, parasitism, the concept of harm.
1.2.1 Symbiosis Symbionts The importance of symbionts to blood-feeding organisms
1.2.2 Commensalism
1.2.3 Phoresis
1.2.4 Mutualism
1.2.5 Parasitism Intra-specific parasites
1.2.6 Parasitoids
1.2.7 The concept of harm
1.3 Parasite hosts
1.4 Zoonotic infections
1.5 The co-evolution of parasites and their hosts
1.5.1 The Red Queen's race hypothesis
1.5.2 Parasites in the fossil record
1.5.3 Parasites and the evolution of sexual reproduction
1.6 Parasitism as a 'lifestyle': advantages and limitations
1.7 The economic cost of parasitic diseases
1.7.1 DALYs: disability-adjusted life years
1.8 Why parasitic diseases remain a problem
2 Taxonomy
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Viruses: a special (unresolved) case
2.3 Taxonomic hierarchy
2.3.1 The Binomen System
2.4 Kingdom Protista
2.5 Kingdom Animalia
2.5.1 Parazoa
2.5.2 Eumetazoa
3 Parasitic Protozoa Part A: Phyla Rhizopoda, Metamonada, Apicomplexa
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Phylum Rhizopoda
3.2.1 Entamoeba histolytica
3.2.2 Entamoeba dispar
3.2.3 Entamoeba moshkovskii
3.2.4 Entamoeba gingivalis
3.2.5 Naegleria fowleri
3.2.6 Balamuthia mandrillaris
3.2.7 Genus Acanthamoeba
3.3 Phylum Metamonada
3.3.1 Order Diplomonadida Genus Giardia Giardia duodenalis
3.3.2 Order Trichomonadida Histomonas meleagradis Trichomonas vaginalis Trichomonas tenax Trichomonas gallinae Tritrichomonas foetus Pentatrichomonas hominis
3.4 Phylum Apicomplexa
3.4.1 Genus Plasmodium Plasmodium life cycle Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium vivax Plasmodium ovale Plasmodium malariae Plasmodium knowlsei
3.4.2 Genus Theileria Theileria life cycle Theileria parva
3.4.3 Genus Babesia Babesia life cycle Babesia bigemina
3.5 Subclass Coccidiasina
3.5.1. Genus Eimeria Eimeria tenella
3.5.2 Genus Isospora
3.5.3 Genus Cytoisospora Cytoisospora (Isospora) belli
3.5.4 Genus Cyclospora Cyclospora cayetanensis
3.5.5 Genus Sarcocystis
3.5.6 Genus Toxoplasma, Toxoplasma gondii
3.5.7 Genus Neospora Neospora caninum
3.5.8 Genus Cryptosporidium
4 Parasitic Protozoa Part B: Phylum Kinetoplastida; Parasitic Algae, and Fungi
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Phylum Kinetoplastida
4.2.1 Genus Leishmania Leishmania life cycle Visceral leishmaniasis Post Kala Azar dermal leishmaniasis Cutaneous leishmaniasis
4.2.2 Genus Trypanosoma Trypanosoma brucei Trypanosoma congolense Trypanosoma evansi Trypanosoma equinum Trypanosoma equiperdum Trypanosoma cruzi
4.3 Phylum Chlorophyta
4.3.1 Genus Prototheca
4.4 Kingdom Fungi
4.4.1 Phylum Microspora
5 Platyhelminth and Acanthocephalan Parasites
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Phylum Platyhelminthes:
5.2.1 Trematoda Family Fasciolidae Fasciola hepatica/ Fasciola gigantica Fasciolopsis buski Family Dicrocoeliidae Dicrocoelium dendriticum Family Paramphistomatidae, Genus Calicophoran, Calicophoran daubneyi Family Opisthorchiformes Clonorchis sinensis Opisthorchis viverrini Opisthorchis felineus Family Paragonomidae Paragonimus westermani Family Cathaemasiidae, Genus Ribeiroia Family Schistosomatidae: Schistosoma mansoni, chistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma haematobium.
5.3 Class Cestoda
5.3.1 Order Pseudophyllidea/ Diphyllobothridea Genus Diphyllobothrium Diphyllobothrium latum
5.3.2 Order Cyclophyllidea Family Taeniidae Taenia solium Taenia saginata Taenia hydatigena Taenia multiceps Genus Echinococcus Echinococcus granulosus, Echinococcus multilocularis Family Anoplocephalidae Anoplocephala perfoliata Moniezia expansa and Moniezia benedeni
5.4 Phylum Acanthocephala
6 Nematode Parasites
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Class Enoplea
6.2.1 Genus Trichuris
6.2.2. Genus Trichinella Trichinella spiralis
6.3 Class Rhabdita
6.3.1 Genus Strongyloides Strongyloides stercoralis
6.3.2 Genus Ancylostoma
6.3.3 Genus Necator
6.3.4 Genus Ascaris
6.3.5 Genus Enterobius, Enterobius vermicularis
6.3.6 Genus Toxocara, Toxocara canis
6.3.7 Genus Anisakis
6.3.8 Family Onchocercidae Genus Onchocerca Genus Wuchereria, Wuchereria bancrofti Genus Brugia Genus Loa, Loa loa Family Dracunculidae, Dracunculus medinensis
7 Arthropod Parasites
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Phylum Chelicerata
7.2.1 Demodicidae
7.2.2 Family Sarcoptidae Genus Sarcoptes Genus Notoedres, Notoedres cati Genus Knemidocoptes
7.2.3 Family Psoroptidae Genus Psoroptes
7.2.4 Suborder Ixodida Family Argasidae Argas persicus Family Ixodidae
7.3 Phylum Crustacea
7.3.1 Subclass Copepoda
7.3.2 Infraclass Cirripedia
7.3.3 Subclass Branchiura
7.3.4 Subclass Pentastomida
7.4 Subphylum Hexapoda
7.4.1 Order Pthiraptera (lice)
7.4.2 Order Siphonaptera (fleas)
7.4.3 Order Diptera (true flies) Suborder Nematocera Suborder Brachycera Family Calliphoridae Genus Chrysomya Genus Cochliomyia Genus Auchmeromyia Genus Cordylobia Family Sarcophagidae Family Oestridae Subfamily Oestrinae Oestrus ovis Subfamily Gasterophilinae Subfamily Hypodermatinae Subfamily Cuterebrinae Dermatobia hominis Family Streblidae Family Nycteribiidae
8 Parasite Transmission
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Contaminative Transmission
8.3 Transmission associated with reproduction
8.3.1 Sexual (Venereal) Transmission
8.3.2 Transmission within Gametes
8.3.3 Congenital Transmission
8.4 Autoinfection
8.5 Nosocomial Transmission
8.6 Active Parasite Transmission
8.7 Hosts and Vectors
8.7.1 Paratenic Hosts
8.7.2 Intermediate Hosts
8.7.3 Vectors
8.8 Host Factors
8.8.1 Host identification
8.8.2 The Influence of Host Behaviour on Parasite Transmission
8.8.3 Religion and Parasite Transmission
8.8.4 War and Parasite Transmission
8.8.5 Parasites Influencing Host Behaviour
8.9 Co- Transmission and Interactions between Pathogens
8.10 Environmental Factors
8.10.1 Natural Environmental Variables
8.10.2 Pollution
8.10.3 Climate Change
9 Immune Reactions to Parasitic Infections
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Invertebrate immunity
9.3 Vertebrate Immunity
9.3.1 Innate Immunity
9.3.2 Adaptive Immunity
9.3.3 Cell Mediated Immunity
9.4 Innate Immunity to Parasites
9.4.1 Physical Factors
9.4.2 Chemical and Microbial Factors
9.4.3 Acute Inflammatory Response
9.4.4 Cell Mediated Immune Reactions
9.5 Adaptive Immune Reactions to Parasites
9.6 Microbiomes and Host Immune Reactions to Parasites
9.7 Avoiding the Host Immune Response
9.8 Immunity to Malaria
9.8.1 Plasmodium: Anopheles Interactions
9.8.2 Plasmodium: Human Interactions Innate Immune Mechanisms against Malaria Antibodies against Malaria Why Humans do not Develop Protective Immunity against Malaria
9.9 Schistosoma spp. and Hepatitis C Virus Interactions
9.10 HIV-AIDS and Parasitic infections
9.10.1 Parasites and the Transmission of HIV
9.10.2 Parasite-HIV Co-Infections Leishmania-HIV Co-Infections The Increasing Problem of HIV-Leishmania Co-Infections Malaria-HIV Co-Infections Toxoplasma-HIV Co-Infections Microsporidia-HIV Co-Infections
10 Pathology Part A: Factors Influencing Pathogenesis, How Parasites Cause Pathology, Types of Pathology
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Factors that Influence Pathogenesis
10.2.1 Host Factors
10.2.2 Parasite Factors
10.3 Mechanisms by which Parasites Cause Pathology
10.3.1 Direct Damage
10.3.2 Indirect Damage
10.4 Types of Pathology
10.4.1 Abortion and Obstetric Pathology
10.4.2 Abscesses and Ulcers
10.4.3 Anaemia
10.4.4 Anorexia
10.4.5 Apoptosis
10.4.6 Autoimmunity
10.4.7 Calcification
10.4.8 Cancer
10.4.9 Castration
10.4.10 Delusional Parasitosis
10.4.11 Diarrhoea
10.4.12 Elephantiasis
10.4.13 Fever
10.4.14 Fibrosis
10.4.15 Granulation
10.4.16 Hyperplasia
10.4.17 Hypertrophy
10.4.18 Hypoplasia and Hypotrophy
10.4.19 Inflammation
10.4.20 Jaundice
10.4.21 Metaplasia
10.4.22 Pressure Atrophy
10.4.23 Psychological Disturbance.
11 Pathology Part B: Damage to Specific Organs; Co-Infections and Pathogenesis
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Damage to Specific Organs
11.2.1 Bladder
11.2.2 Brain and Nervous System
11.2.3 Gastrointestinal Tract
11.2.4 Gall bladder and Bile Ducts
11.2.5 Genitalia
11.2.6 Kidney
11.2.7 Liver
11.2.8 Lungs
11.2.9 Skin
11.2.10 Spleen
11.3 Co-Infections and Pathogenesis
12 The Useful Parasite
12.1 Introduction: The Goodness of Parasites?
12.2 The Importance of Parasites for the Maintenance of a Healthy Immune System
12.2.1 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
12.2.2 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
12.2.3 Irritable Bowel Syndrome
12.2.4 Inflammatory Bowel Disease type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease
12.3 The Use of Parasites to Treat Medical Conditions
12.3.1 Helminth Therapy Therapy in Practice
12.3.2 Maggot Therapy Maggot Therapy in Practice How Maggot Therapy Works
12.3.3 Leech Therapy Leech Therapy in Practice
12.3.4 Malaria Therapy (Malariotherapy)
12.4 Parasites as Sources of Novel Pharmacologically Active Substances
12.5 Parasites as Biological Control Agents
12.5.1 Life cycle of the Entomopathogenic Nematodes Heterorhabditis and Steinernema
12.6 Parasites as Forensic Indicators
13 The Identification of Protozoan and Helminth Parasites
13.1 Laboratory Testing for Parasitic Infections: Introduction
13.2 Importance of Correct Identification
13.3 Properties of an Ideal Diagnostic Test
13.4 Isolation of Parasites
13.5 Identification from Gross Morphology
13.5.1 Morphological Identification of Entamoeba spp.
13.5.2 Morphological Identification of Plasmodium spp. and Babesia spp.
13.5.3 Morphological Identification of Taenia spp. tapeworms
13.5.4 Morphological Identification of Filarial Nematode Infections
13.6 Biochemical Techniques for Identification
13.7 Immunological Techniques for Identification
13.8 Molecular Techniques for Identification
13.9 Diagnostic Testing of Parasitic Infections Outside the Laboratory: Introduction
13.9.1 Immunochromatographic (Lateral Flow) Tests Detection of Parasites in Blood with LFDs Detection of Plasmodium spp. with LFDs Detection of Leishmania spp. with LFDs Detection of Parasites in Faeces with LFDs Detection of Faecal Protozoa with LFDs Detection of Helminths in Faeces with LFDs
13.9.2 Point of Care Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATS) Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis using POCT NAATs Detection of Plasmodium spp. using POCT NAATs Invertebrate vector and intermediate host monitoring using POCT NAATs
14 Parasite Treatment
14.1 Introduction
14.2 The Ideal Antiparasitic Drug
14.3 Pharmaceutical Drugs
14.4 DNA/ RNA Technology
14.5 Molecular Chaperones (Heat Shock Proteins)
14.6 Nanotechnology
14.7 Quantum Dots
14.8 Natural Remedies
14.9 Homeopathy
15 Parasite Vaccines
15.1 Introduction
15.2 The Design and Use of Vaccines
15.3 Herd Immunity
15.4 Factors Limiting the Production of Commercial Antiparasitic Vaccines
15.5 Properties of an Ideal Vaccine
15.6 Types of Vaccine
15.6.1 Live Attenuated Vaccines
15.6.2 Inactivated Vaccines
15.6.3 Subunit/ Recombinant Vaccines
15.6.4 Peptide/ Polypeptide Vaccines
15.6.5 Carbohydrate Vaccines
15.6.6 Toxoid (anti-toxin) Vaccines
15.6.7 Virus-Like Particles Vaccines
15.6.8 DNA/ RNA Vaccines
15.7 Identification of Antigens for use in Anti-parasite Vaccines
15.8 Vaccine Delivery
15.9 Vaccines Against Malaria
15.10 Nanobodies (Single Domain Antibodies)
15.11 Problems with Vaccination Strategies
16 Parasite Control
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Eradication, Elimination, and Control
16.3 Education
16.4 Environmental Modification and Cultural Control
16.5 Remote Sensing and GIS Technology
16.6 Whether to treat the Individual or the Population
16.7 Piggy-Backing Control Programmes
16.8 Disruptions to Control Programmes
16.9 Role of Governments, Foundations, and Aid Organisations