Tato kniha je navržena jako referenční příručka pro nové i zkušené veterinární sonografisty. Obsahuje tipy a informace užitečné při hodnocení pleurálního prostoru a plic. Zahrnuje postupy k provádění ultrazvukového vyšetření pleurálního prostoru a plic a využívá přístup s binárními otázkami, který umožňuje nováčkům i odborníkům zvládnout a rozvíjet své dovednosti. Je doplněna videi, ke kterým je možné přistupovat prostřednictvím eBook verze nebo QR kódů.
This book is designed to be a reference for both the new and experienced veterinary point-of-care sonographer. It includes tips and information nonspecialists will find helpful in assessing the pleural space and lung. It covers a step-by-step approach to performing pleural space and lung ultrasound and uses a binary question approach to allow novices and experts alike to master and grow their skills. It is accompanied by videos, which can be accessed through the eBook version or QR codes.
Dr. Søren Boysen obtained his DVM from the University of Saskatchewan (Canada), completed a small animal internship at the Atlantic Veterinary College (Canada), and a residency at Tufts University (United States), becoming a diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care in 2003. He is the former Chief of Small Animal Emergency and Critical Care at the University of Montreal, and currently a full professor of veterinary emergency and critical care at the University of Calgary. Extensively published, and a recipient of numerous teaching and research excellence awards, he has become an internationally recognized speaker. Although he loves all things emergency and critical care, he is considered a pioneer of veterinary point-of-care ultrasound (VPOCUS), having published the first small animal focused assessment of sonography for trauma (FAST) exam in collaboration with colleagues from Tufts. With many great colleagues from around the world he continues to actively research and develop ultrasound training techniques, education programs, and workshops for nonspecialist practitioners. Along with point-of-care ultrasound, his research interests include hemorrhage, coagulation, and perfusion.
Kris Gommeren graduated in 2002 from Ghent University (Belgium), where he subsequently performed an internship and a residency in internal medicine, becoming a Diplomate of the European College of Veterinary Internal Medicine in 2009. After his residency he briefly worked in a private referral practice, but soon moved to the University of Liège, where he has been in charge of the Emergency and Critical Care Service since 2008. He obtained his PhD on the effects of systemic inflammation on the cardiovascular system. In 2017 he became a Diplomate of the European College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care. He remains actively involved in the residency programs of both internal medicine and emergency and critical care. For years Kris has been actively involved in the European Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society (EVECCS), of which he is past president. He is a consultant for an international veterinary company, working on the development of emergency and critical care facilities and the training of personnel. His main fields of interest are point-of-care ultrasound, the cardiovascular system, fluid therapy and the assessment of volume status.
Born and raised in Montreal, Dr. Serge Chalhoub graduated from the DVM program at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (FMV) of the University of Montreal in 2004. He then completed a one-year rotating small animal internship at the same institution. After working for two years as a general practitioner and emergency veterinarian at the DMV Centre in Montreal, Dr. Chalhoub pursued a residency in small animal internal medicine at the Animal Medical Center (AMC) in New York City. Once completed in 2009 he stayed on at the AMC as their first renal/hemodialysis fellow. During this time, he was also trained in interventional radiology and endoscopy. Dr. Chalhoub is currently a senior instructor at the University of Calgary’s Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (UCVM). He was the recipient of the 2013 Canadian Veterinary Medical Association’s Teacher of the Year Award, the 2015 University of Calgary Team Teacher of the Year Award, and the 2017 Carl J. Norden Distinguished Teacher Award. He is the coordinator of the UCVM-CUPS Pet Health Clinic for disadvantaged Calgarians. He has authored and coauthored numerous scientific articles and book chapters on veterinary point-of-care ultrasound, renal and urinary medicine.
Using binary questions
2. General technique
Introduction to the Calgary Pleural and Lung
Ultrasound (PLUS) approach
Contraindications and complications
Patient positioning and preparation
The Calgary PLUS Technique
Application of the Calgary PLUS approach
3. Image interpretation: Normal findings
4. Image interpretation: Clinical applications for the pleural space
Is there pneumothorax?
Where and how to look for pneumothorax (step by step)
Key criteria to rule out pneumothorax
Key criteria to confirm pneumothorax
Is there pleural effusion?
Where and how to look for pleural effusion (step by step)
Key criteria to rule out pleural effusion
Key criteria to confirm pleural effusion
Tricks to differentiate pleural from pericardial effusion
5. Image interpretation: Clinical applications for the lungs (visceral pleural surface)
Is there alveolar interstitial syndrome (AIS)?
Where and how to look for AIS (step by step)
Key criteria to rule out AIS
Key criteria to confirm AIS
Is there lung consolidation?
Classifications of lung consolidation
Where and how to look for lung consolidation (step by step)
Key criteria to rule out lung consolidations
Key criteria to confirm lung consolidations
Is there pleural thickening and/or subpleural irregularities?
Where and how to look for pleural thickening and subpleural irregularities
Defining pleural thickening and subpleural irregularities
Significance of pleural thickening and subpleural irregularities
6. Lung and pleural space procedures
Chest tube placement
|Evolution of pleura and lung ultrasound (PLUS)
|Important considerations for PLUS
|Presenting complaint, triage and physical exam
|Clinically driven binary questions
|Sonographically-defined pleura and lung borders
|2. GENERAL APPROACH
|The Calgary Pleura and Lung Ultrasound (PLUS) approach
|Contraindications and comlications
|Longitudinal (long) and transverse (short) axis
|Patient positioning and preparations
|Calgary PLUS approach
|Application of the Calgary PLUS approach
|3. PLUS IMAGE INTERPRETATION: NORMAL FINDINGS
|The pleural line
|Lung sliding (the glide sign)
|Visualization of lung sliding
|Abdominal curtain signs
|The pericardiodiaphragmatic (PD) window
|Medistinal triangle visible at the PD window
|Medistinal triangle obscured by lung at the PD window
|"Ski jump" sign
|Z lines, I lines and E lines
|4. CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF PLUS: IS THERE PNEUMOTHORAX, YES/NO?
|Criteria to diagnose pneumothorax
|Criteria to rule out pneumothorax
|Criteria to rule in pneumothorax
|The role of M mode to diagnose pneumothorax
|Sonographic techniques to identify pneumothorax
|5. CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF PLUS: IS THERE PLEURAL EFFUSION, YES/NO?
|Criteria to diagnose pleural effusion
|Criteria to rule out pleural effusion
|Criteria to rule in pleural effusion
|Criteria to differentiate pleural from pericardial effusion
|The shape of pleural effusion
|Transducer orientation and selection
|Sonographic techniques to idntify pleural effusion
|6.CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF PLUS: ARE THERE INCREASED B LINES, YES/NO?
|Criteria to diagnose increased B lines
|Criteria 1. Number of B lines within a single sonographic window
|Criteria 2. Identification of B lines considering the PLUS profile over the entire hemothorax of the patient
|Criteria to help identify increased B lines
|Criteria to help identify the underlying cause of increased B lines
|Criteria to rule out increased B lines
|Diagnostic considerations for specific causes of increased B lines
|Application of PLUS algorithm
|7. CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF PLUS: IS THERE LUNG CONSOLIDATION, YES/NO?
|Criteria to diagnose lung consolidation
|Criteria to rule out lung consolidation
|Criteria to rule in lung consolidation
|Criteria to characterize lung consolidations
|Is the consolidation partial (non-translobar) or translobar?
|Partial consolidations: is it a shred, nodule or wedge or wedge sign?
|Transducer orientation and selection
|Sonographic techniques to identify lung consolidation
|PLUS lung ultrasound profiles